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Gender-based violence rooted in norms, socialization practices, structural factors, and policies that underlie men's abusive practices against married women in India is exacerbated by alcohol. The intersection of domestic violence, childhood exposure to alcohol and frustration, which contribute to drinking and its consequences including forced sex is explored through analysis of data obtained from married men living with their wives in a low-income area of Greater Mumbai. SEM shows pathways linking work-related stress, greater exposure to alcohol as a child, being a heavy drinker, and having more sexual partners a proxy for HIV risk. In-depth ethnographic interviews with 44 married women in the study communities reveal the consequences of alcohol on women's lives showing how married women associate alcohol use and violence with different patterns of drinking. The study suggests ways alcohol use leads from physical and verbal abuse to emotional and sexual violence in marriage. Implications for gendered multi-level interventions addressing violence and HIV risk are explored. The co-occurrence of alcohol abuse and domestic violence including forced sex within marriage in India is widely acknowledged [ 1 , 2 ].
If I could describe the impact and aftermath of emotional abuse in one word, it would be invisible. I never said that. The cycle of abuse, as developed by Dr. Lenore Walker and survivors , includes four stages—tension building, incident, reconciliation, and calm—that also apply to situations of emotional abuse. Depression , anxiety , and complex post-traumatic stress disorder are common among survivors of emotional abuse, and the healing process can be made even more difficult by lack of support or outright disbelief when victims come forward.
Why do we make excuses? You tell yourself that eating that pint of ice cream was fine because you went running the day before so that cancels it out. When it comes to people making justifications about their unhealthy actions, it can be difficult to see through these excuses or recognize them for what they are. Sometimes the justifications sound really good. Abusive partners are also skilled at coercion and manipulation.