The gymnosperms , also known as Acrogymnospermae ,  are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers , cycads , Ginkgo , and gnetophytes. The name is based on the unenclosed condition of their seeds called ovules in their unfertilized state. The non-encased condition of their seeds contrasts with the seeds and ovules of flowering plants angiosperms , which are enclosed within an ovary. Gymnosperm seeds develop either on the surface of scales or leaves, which are often modified to form cones , or solitary as in yew , Torreya , Ginkgo. The gymnosperms and angiosperms together compose the spermatophytes or seed plants.
Gymnosperms known sometimes as Gymnospermae are seed-bearing plants whose seeds do not form inside fruits , but outside of the ovum. Gymnosperms, once an authoritative and major classification level in its kingdom, are now a rather heterogenous group of seed-bearing plants which include the conifers , cycads , ginkgos , and gnetophytes. Their naked condition contrasts with the seeds or ovules of the angiosperms , which are enclosed during pollination. The seeds of gymnosperms develop either on the surface of scale or leaf-like appendages of cones , with the exception of Ginkgo , where the seeds are developed on the end of short stalks.
Simply stated, female ginkgos stink. The male ginkgo bears no fruit, but those of the female are uniquely malodorous. They have been likened to vegetal vomit the acrid scent attributable to butyric acid in the soft outer parts of the fruit , and though hard to appreciate, it imparts some adaptive value to the ginkgo fruit — attracting or discouraging interest. Near the corner of Avenue U and 23rd Street, not far from where I grew up in Brooklyn, a female ginkgo tree was planted where a male tree was undoubtedly intended.
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Lab 9 - Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. When mosses and liverworts first evolved, they dominated the terrestrial environment. But they were soon challenged by the more advanced tracheophytes.