In archaeology , rock art is human-made markings placed on natural stone; it is largely synonymous with parietal art. A global phenomenon, rock art is found in many culturally diverse regions of the world. It has been produced in many contexts throughout human history, although the majority of rock art that has been ethnographically recorded has been produced as a part of ritual. Such artworks are often divided into three forms: petroglyphs , which are carved into the rock surface, pictographs , which are painted onto the surface, and earth figures , formed on the ground.
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Modern critics would probably hail the up and coming rock artists that once inhabited Indonesia. About a hundred caves outside Moras, a town in the tropical forests of Sulawesi, were once lined with hand stencils and vibrant murals of abstract pigs and dwarf buffalo. Today only fragments of the artwork remain, and the mysterious artists are long gone.
The axiom that rock art is notoriously difficult to date serves only to paint a partial picture of the inconsistent and contested chronological records of rock art in Africa. For example, where research has focused on interpretation, chronology has been less prominent and as such the capacity for judging meaningful relationships between sites and imagery has been inhibited; by contrast where chronologies have led research agendas, the temporal and spatial relationships are much clearer, but chronologies are hotly disputed. A significant obstacle is the challenge in directly dating rock art, and current research is exploring ways forward in refining these techniques. Here, we give an overview of dating methods and developed chronologies to date in rock art regions across the continent.